Temperature effect on Captive Asian Elephants

The occurrence of elephants in the wild has not been reported for arid/ semi-arid areas. The only elephants occurring in such regions are captive animals. Under natural conditions all natural processes, including temperature variation, is taken
care of through ecological and behavioural mechanisms. In unnatural conditions, such as those experienced in captivity, along with variation in behavioural and ecological factors, tolerance to extreme temperatures is always a challenge for the animal. The biological mechanisms available in elephants to tolerate extreme temperatures and the implications
on welfare and health from prolonged exposure to extreme air temperatures for Asian elephants, more specifically in arid regions of Northern India, are reviewed in this document.